FINRA Manual: Contents
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CONDUCT RULES (2000–3000)
2000. BUSINESS CONDUCT
2200. COMMUNICATIONS WITH CUSTOMERS AND THE PUBLIC
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IM-2210-2. Communications with the Public About Variable Life Insurance and Variable Annuities
The standards governing communications with the public are set forth in Rule 2210. In addition to those standards, the following guidelines must be considered in preparing advertisements and sales literature about variable life insurance and variable annuities. The guidelines are applicable to advertisements and sales literature as defined in Rule 2210, as well as individualized communications such as personalized letters and computer generated illustrations, whether printed or made available on-screen.
(a) General Considerations
(1) Product Identification
In order to assure that investors understand exactly what security is being discussed, all communications must clearly describe the product as either a variable life insurance policy or a variable annuity, as applicable. Member firms may use proprietary names in addition to this description. In cases where the proprietary name includes a description of the type of security being offered, there is no requirement to include a generalized description. For example, if the material includes a name such as the "XYZ Variable Life Insurance Policy," it is not necessary to include a statement indicating that the security is a variable life insurance policy. Considering the significant differences between mutual funds and variable products, the presentation must not represent or imply that the product being offered or its underlying account is a mutual fund.
Considering that variable life insurance and variable annuities frequently involve substantial charges and/or tax penalties for early withdrawals, there must be no representation or implication that these are short-term, liquid investments. Presentations regarding liquidity or ease of access to investment values must be balanced by clear language describing the negative impact of early redemptions. Examples of this negative impact may be the payment of contingent deferred sales loads and tax penalties, and the fact that the investor may receive less than the original invested amount. With respect to variable life insurance, discussions of loans and withdrawals must explain their impact on cash values and death benefits.
(3) Claims About Guarantees
Insurance companies issuing variable life insurance and variable annuities provide a number of specific guarantees. For example, an insurance company may guarantee a minimum death benefit for a variable life insurance policy or the company may guarantee a schedule of payments to a variable annuity owner. Variable life insurance policies and variable annuities may also offer a fixed investment account which is guaranteed by the insurance company. The relative safety resulting from such a guarantee must not be overemphasized or exaggerated as it depends on the claims-paying ability of the issuing insurance company. There must be no representation or implication that a guarantee applies to the investment return or principal value of the separate account. Similarly, it must not be represented or implied that an insurance company's financial ratings apply to the separate account.
(b) Specific Considerations
(1) Fund Performance Predating Inclusion in the Variable Product
In order to show how an existing fund would have performed had it been an investment option within a variable life insurance policy or variable annuity, communications may contain the fund's historical performance that predates its inclusion in the policy or annuity. Such performance may only be used provided that no significant changes occurred to the fund at the time or after it became part of the variable product. However, communications may not include the performance of an existing fund for the purposes of promoting investment in a similar, but new, investment option (i.e., clone fund or model fund) available in a variable contract. The presentation of historical performance must conform to applicable NASD and SEC standards. Particular attention must be given to including all elements of return and deducting applicable charges and expenses.
(2) Product Comparisons
A comparison of investment products may be used provided the comparison complies with applicable requirements set forth under Rule 2210. Particular attention must be paid to the specific standards regarding "comparisons" set forth in Rule 2210(d)(2)(B).
(3) Use of Rankings
A ranking which reflects the relative performance of the separate account or the underlying investment option may be included in advertisements and sales literature provided its use is consistent with the standards contained in IM-2210-3.
(4) Discussions Regarding Insurance and Investment Features of Variable Life Insurance
Communications on behalf of single premium variable life insurance may emphasize the investment features of the product provided an adequate explanation of the life insurance features is given. Sales material for other types of variable life insurance must provide a balanced discussion of these features.
(5) Hypothetical Illustrations of Rates of Return in Variable Life Insurance Sales Literature and Personalized Illustrations
(A)(i) Hypothetical illustrations using assumed rates of return may be used to demonstrate the way a variable life insurance policy operates. The illustrations show how the performance of the underlying investment accounts could affect the policy cash value and death benefit. These illustrations may not be used to project or predict investment results as such forecasts are strictly prohibited by the Rules. The methodology and format of hypothetical illustrations must be modeled after the required illustrations in the prospectus.
(ii) An illustration may use any combination of assumed investment returns up to and including a gross rate of 12%, provided that one of the returns is a 0% gross rate. Although the maximum assumed rate of 12% may be acceptable, members are urged to assure that the maximum rate illustrated is reasonable considering market conditions and the available investment options. The purpose of the required 0% rate of return is to demonstrate how a lack of growth in the underlying investment accounts may affect policy values and to reinforce the hypothetical nature of the illustration.
(iii) The illustrations must reflect the maximum (guaranteed) mortality and expense charges associated with the policy for each assumed rate of return. Current charges may be illustrated in addition to the maximum charges.
(iv) Preceding any illustration there must be a prominent explanation that the purpose of the illustration is to show how the performance of the underlying investment accounts could affect the policy cash value and death benefit. The explanation must also state that the illustration is hypothetical and may not be used to project or predict investment results.
(B) In sales literature which includes hypothetical illustrations, member firms may provide a personalized illustration which reflects factors relating to the individual customer's circumstances. A personalized illustration may not contain a rate of return greater than 12% and must follow all of the standards set forth in subparagraph (A), above.
(C) In general, it is inappropriate to compare a variable life insurance policy with another product based on hypothetical performance as this type of presentation goes beyond the singular purpose of illustrating how the performance of the underlying investment accounts could affect the policy cash value and death benefit. It is permissible, however, to use a hypothetical illustration in order to compare a variable life insurance policy to a term policy with the difference in cost invested in a side product. The sole purpose of this type of illustration would be to demonstrate the concept of tax-deferred growth as a result of investing in the variable product. The following conditions must be met in order to make this type of comparison balanced and complete:
(i) the comparative illustration must be accompanied by an illustration which reflects the standards outlined in subparagraph (A), above;
(ii) the rate of return used in the comparative illustration must be no greater than 12%;
(iii) the rate of return assumed for the side product and the variable life policy must be the same;
(iv) the same fees deducted from the required prospectus illustration must be deducted from the comparative illustration;
(v) the side product must be illustrated using gross values which do not reflect the deduction of any fees; and,
(vi) the side product must not be identified or characterized as any specific investment or investment type.
Amended by SR-NASD-2004-176 eff. Jan. 1, 2005.
Amended by SR-NASD-2000-12 eff. Nov. 3, 2003.
Adopted by SR-NASD-94-02 eff. Mar. 21, 1994.
Selected Notice: 03-38.