FINRA Manual: Contents
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2000. DUTIES AND CONFLICTS
2080. Obtaining an Order of Expungement of Customer Dispute Information from the Central Registration Depository (CRD) System
2200. COMMUNICATIONS AND DISCLOSURES
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2210. Communications with the Public
For purposes of this Rule and any interpretation thereof:
(1) “Communications” consist of correspondence, retail communications and institutional communications.
(2) “Correspondence” means any written (including electronic) communication that is distributed or made available to 25 or fewer retail investors within any 30 calendar-day period.
(3) “Institutional communication” means any written (including electronic) communication that is distributed or made available only to institutional investors, but does not include a member's internal communications.
(4) “Institutional investor” means any:
(A) person described in Rule 4512(c), regardless of whether the person has an account with a member;
(B) governmental entity or subdivision thereof;
(C) employee benefit plan, or multiple employee benefit plans offered to employees of the same employer, that meet the requirements of Section 403(b) or Section 457 of the Internal Revenue Code and in the aggregate have at least 100 participants, but does not include any participant of such plans;
(D) qualified plan, as defined in Section 3(a)(12)(C) of the Exchange Act, or multiple qualified plans offered to employees of the same employer, that in the aggregate have at least 100 participants, but does not include any participant of such plans;
(E) member or registered person of such a member; and
(F) person acting solely on behalf of any such institutional investor.
No member may treat a communication as having been distributed to an institutional investor if the member has reason to believe that the communication or any excerpt thereof will be forwarded or made available to any retail investor.
(5) “Retail communication” means any written (including electronic) communication that is distributed or made available to more than 25 retail investors within any 30 calendar-day period.
(6) “Retail investor” means any person other than an institutional investor, regardless of whether the person has an account with a member.
(b) Approval, Review and Recordkeeping
(1) Retail Communications
(A) An appropriately qualified registered principal of the member must approve each retail communication before the earlier of its use or filing with FINRA's Advertising Regulation Department ("Department").
(B) The requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(A) may be met by a Supervisory Analyst approved pursuant to NYSE Rule 344 with respect to: (i) research reports on debt and equity securities; (ii) retail communications as described in NASD Rule 2711(a)(9)(A); and (iii) other research that does not meet the definition of “research report” under NASD Rule 2711(a)(9), provided that the Supervisory Analyst has technical expertise in the particular product area. A Supervisory Analyst may not approve a retail communication that requires a separate registration unless the Supervisory Analyst also has such other registration.
(C) The requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(A) shall not apply with regard to any retail communication if, at the time that a member intends to publish or distribute it:
(i) another member has filed it with the Department and has received a letter from the Department stating that it appears to be consistent with applicable standards; and
(ii) the member using it in reliance upon this subparagraph has not materially altered it and will not use it in a manner that is inconsistent with the conditions of the Department's letter.
(D) The requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(A) shall not apply with regard to the following retail communications, provided that the member supervises and reviews such communications in the same manner as required for supervising and reviewing correspondence pursuant to NASD Rule 3010(d):
(i) any retail communication that is excepted from the definition of “research report” pursuant to NASD Rule 2711(a)(9)(A), unless the communication makes any financial or investment recommendation;
(ii) any retail communication that is posted on an online interactive electronic forum; and
(iii) any retail communication that does not make any financial or investment recommendation or otherwise promote a product or service of the member.
(E) Pursuant to the Rule 9600 Series, FINRA may conditionally or unconditionally grant an exemption from paragraph (b)(1)(A) for good cause shown after taking into consideration all relevant factors, to the extent such exemption is consistent with the purposes of the Rule, the protection of investors, and the public interest.
(F) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Rule, an appropriately qualified principal must approve a communication prior to a member filing the communication with the Department.
All correspondence is subject to the supervision and review requirements of NASD Rule 3010(d).
(3) Institutional Communications
Each member shall establish written procedures that are appropriate to its business, size, structure, and customers for the review by an appropriately qualified registered principal of institutional communications used by the member and its associated persons. Such procedures must be reasonably designed to ensure that institutional communications comply with applicable standards. When such procedures do not require review of all institutional communications prior to first use or distribution, they must include provision for the education and training of associated persons as to the firm's procedures governing institutional communications, documentation of such education and training, and surveillance and follow-up to ensure that such procedures are implemented and adhered to. Evidence that these supervisory procedures have been implemented and carried out must be maintained and made available to FINRA upon request.
(A) Members must maintain all retail communications and institutional communications for the retention period required by SEA Rule 17a-4(b) and in a format and media that comply with SEA Rule 17a-4. The records must include:
(i) a copy of the communication and the dates of first and (if applicable) last use of such communication;
(ii) the name of any registered principal who approved the communication and the date that approval was given;
(iii) in the case of a retail communication or an institutional communication that is not approved prior to first use by a registered principal, the name of the person who prepared or distributed the communication;
(iv) information concerning the source of any statistical table, chart, graph or other illustration used in the communication; and
(v) for any retail communication for which principal approval is not required pursuant to paragraph (b)(1)(C), the name of the member that filed the retail communication with the Department, and a copy of the corresponding review letter from the Department.
(c) Filing Requirements and Review Procedures
(1) Requirement for Certain Members to File Retail Communications Prior to First Use
(A) For a period of one year beginning on the date reflected in the Central Registration Depository (CRD®) system as the date that FINRA membership became effective, the member must file with the Department at least 10 business days prior to first use any retail communication that is published or used in any electronic or other public media, including any generally accessible website, newspaper, magazine or other periodical, radio, television, telephone or audio recording, video display, signs or billboards, motion pictures, or telephone directories (other than routine listings). To the extent any retail communication that is subject to this filing requirement is a free writing prospectus that has been filed with the SEC pursuant to Securities Act Rule 433(d)(1)(ii), the member may file such retail communication within 10 business days of first use rather than at least 10 business days prior to first use.
(B) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, if the Department determines that a member has departed from the standards of this Rule, it may require that such member file all communications, or the portion of such member's communications that is related to any specific types or classes of securities or services, with the Department at least 10 business days prior to first use. The Department will notify the member in writing of the types of communications to be filed and the length of time such requirement is to be in effect. Any filing requirement imposed under this subparagraph will take effect 21 calendar days after service of the written notice, during which time the member may request a hearing under Rules 9551 and 9559.
(2) Requirement to File Certain Retail Communications Prior to First Use
At least 10 business days prior to first use or publication (or such shorter period as the Department may allow), a member must file the following retail communications with the Department and withhold them from publication or circulation until any changes specified by the Department have been made:
(A) Retail communications concerning registered investment companies (including mutual funds, exchange-traded funds, variable insurance products, closed-end funds and unit investment trusts) that include or incorporate performance rankings or performance comparisons of the investment company with other investment companies when the ranking or comparison category is not generally published or is the creation, either directly or indirectly, of the investment company, its underwriter or an affiliate. Such filings must include a copy of the data on which the ranking or comparison is based.
(B) Retail communications concerning security futures. The requirements of this paragraph (c)(2)(B) shall not be applicable to:
(i) retail communications concerning security futures that are submitted to another self-regulatory organization having comparable standards pertaining to such retail communications; and
(ii) retail communications in which the only reference to security futures is contained in a listing of the services of a member.
(C) Retail communications concerning bond mutual funds that include or incorporate bond mutual fund volatility ratings, as defined in Rule 2213.
(3) Requirement to File Certain Retail Communications
Within 10 business days of first use or publication, a member must file the following communications with the Department:
(A) Retail communications concerning registered investment companies (including mutual funds, exchange-traded funds, variable insurance products, closed-end funds, and unit investment trusts) not included within the requirements of paragraphs(c)(1) or (c)(2). The filing of any retail communication that includes or incorporates a performance ranking or performance comparison of the investment company with other investment companies must include a copy of the ranking or comparison used in the retail communication.
(B) Retail communications concerning public direct participation programs (as defined in Rule 2310).
(C) Any template for written reports produced by, or retail communications concerning, an investment analysis tool, as such term is defined in Rule 2214.
(D) Retail communications concerning collateralized mortgage obligations registered under the Securities Act.
(E) Retail communications concerning any security that is registered under the Securities Act and that is derived from or based on a single security, a basket of securities, an index, a commodity, a debt issuance or a foreign currency, not included within the requirements of paragraphs (c)(1), (c)(2) or subparagraphs (A) through (D) of paragraph (c)(3).
(4) Filing of Television or Video Retail Communications
If a member has filed a draft version or "story board" of a television or video retail communication pursuant to a filing requirement, then the member also must file the final filmed version within 10 business days of first use or broadcast.
(5) Date of First Use and Approval Information
A member must provide with each filing the actual or anticipated date of first use, the name, title and Central Registration Depository (CRD®) number of the registered principal who approved the retail communication, and the date that the approval was given.
(6) Spot-Check Procedures
In addition to the foregoing requirements, each member's written (including electronic) communications may be subject to a spot-check procedure. Upon written request from the Department, each member must submit the material requested in a spot-check procedure within the time frame specified by the Department.
(7) Exclusions from Filing Requirements
The following communications are excluded from the filing requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(4):
(A) Retail communications that previously have been filed with the Department and that are to be used without material change.
(B) Retail communications that are based on templates that were previously filed with the Department the changes to which are limited to updates of more recent statistical or other non-narrative information.
(C) Retail communications that do not make any financial or investment recommendation or otherwise promote a product or service of the member.
(D) Retail communications that do no more than identify a national securities exchange symbol of the member or identify a security for which the member is a registered market maker.
(E) Retail communications that do no more than identify the member or offer a specific security at a stated price.
(F) Prospectuses, preliminary prospectuses, fund profiles, offering circulars and similar documents that have been filed with the SEC or any state, or that is exempt from such registration, and free writing prospectuses that are exempt from filing with the SEC, except that an investment company prospectus published pursuant to Securities Act Rule 482 and a free writing prospectus that is required to be filed with the SEC pursuant to Securities Act Rule 433(d)(1)(ii) will not be considered a prospectus for purposes of this exclusion.
(G) Retail communications prepared in accordance with Section 2(a)(10)(b) of the Securities Act, as amended, or any rule thereunder, such as Rule 134, and announcements as a matter of record that a member has participated in a private placement, unless the retail communications are related to publicly offered direct participation programs or securities issued by registered investment companies.
(H) Press releases that are made available only to members of the media.
(I) Any reprint or excerpt of any article or report issued by a publisher (“reprint”), provided that:
(i) the publisher is not an affiliate of the member using the reprint or any underwriter or issuer of a security mentioned in the reprint that the member is promoting;
(ii) neither the member using the reprint nor any underwriter or issuer of a security mentioned in the reprint has commissioned the reprinted article or report; and
(iii) the member using the reprint has not materially altered its contents except as necessary to make the reprint consistent with applicable regulatory standards or to correct factual errors.
(K) Institutional communications.
(L) Communications that refer to types of investments solely as part of a listing of products or services offered by the member.
(M) Retail communications that are posted on an online interactive electronic forum.
(N) Press releases issued by closed-end investment companies that are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) pursuant to section 202.06 of the NYSE Listed Company Manual (or any successor provision).
(O) Research reports as defined in NASD Rule 2711 that concern only securities that are listed on a national securities exchange, other than research reports required to be filed with the Commission pursuant to Section 24(b) of the Investment Company Act.
(8) Communications Deemed Filed with FINRA
Although the communications described in paragraphs (c)(7)(H) through (K) are excluded from the foregoing filing requirements, investment company communications described in those paragraphs shall be deemed filed with FINRA for purposes of Section 24(b) of the Investment Company Act and Rule 24b-3 thereunder.
(9) Filing Exemptions
(A) Pursuant to the Rule 9600 Series, FINRA may exempt a member from the pre-use filing requirements of paragraph (c)(1)(A) for good cause shown.
(B) Pursuant to the Rule 9600 Series, FINRA may conditionally or unconditionally grant an exemption from paragraph (c)(3) for good cause shown after taking into consideration all relevant factors, to the extent such exemption is consistent with the purposes of the Rule, the protection of investors, and the public interest.
(d) Content Standards
(1) General Standards
(A) All member communications must be based on principles of fair dealing and good faith, must be fair and balanced, and must provide a sound basis for evaluating the facts in regard to any particular security or type of security, industry, or service. No member may omit any material fact or qualification if the omission, in light of the context of the material presented, would cause the communications to be misleading.
(B) No member may make any false, exaggerated, unwarranted, promissory or misleading statement or claim in any communication. No member may publish, circulate or distribute any communication that the member knows or has reason to know contains any untrue statement of a material fact or is otherwise false or misleading.
(C) Information may be placed in a legend or footnote only in the event that such placement would not inhibit an investor's understanding of the communication.
(D) Members must ensure that statements are clear and not misleading within the context in which they are made, and that they provide balanced treatment of risks and potential benefits. Communications must be consistent with the risks of fluctuating prices and the uncertainty of dividends, rates of return and yield inherent to investments.
(E) Members must consider the nature of the audience to which the communication will be directed and must provide details and explanations appropriate to the audience.
(F) Communications may not predict or project performance, imply that past performance will recur or make any exaggerated or unwarranted claim, opinion or forecast; provided, however, that this paragraph (d)(1)(F) does not prohibit:
(i) A hypothetical illustration of mathematical principles, provided that it does not predict or project the performance of an investment or investment strategy;
(ii) An investment analysis tool, or a written report produced by an investment analysis tool, that meets the requirements of Rule 2214; and
(iii) A price target contained in a research report on debt or equity securities, provided that the price target has a reasonable basis, the report discloses the valuation methods used to determine the price target, and the price target is accompanied by disclosure concerning the risks that may impede achievement of the price target.
Any comparison in retail communications between investments or services must disclose all material differences between them, including (as applicable) investment objectives, costs and expenses, liquidity, safety, guarantees or insurance, fluctuation of principal or return, and tax features.
(3) Disclosure of Member's Name
All retail communications and correspondence must:
(A) prominently disclose the name of the member, or the name under which the member's broker-dealer business primarily is conducted as disclosed on the member's Form BD, and may also include a fictional name by which the member is commonly recognized or which is required by any state or jurisdiction;
(B) reflect any relationship between the member and any non-member or individual who is also named; and
(C) if it includes other names, reflect which products or services are being offered by the member.
This paragraph (d)(3) does not apply to so-called "blind" advertisements used to recruit personnel.
(4) Tax Considerations
(A) In retail communications and correspondence, references to tax-free or tax-exempt income must indicate which income taxes apply, or which do not, unless income is free from all applicable taxes. If income from an investment company investing in municipal bonds is subject to state or local income taxes, this fact must be stated, or the illustration must otherwise make it clear that income is free only from federal income tax.
(B) Communications may not characterize income or investment returns as tax-free or exempt from income tax when tax liability is merely postponed or deferred, such as when taxes are payable upon redemption.
(C) A comparative illustration of the mathematical principles of tax-deferred versus taxable compounding must meet the following requirements:
(i) The illustration must depict both the taxable investment and the tax-deferred investment using identical investment amounts and identical assumed gross investment rates of return, which may not exceed 10 percent per annum.
(ii) The illustration must use and identify actual federal income tax rates.
(iii) The illustration may reflect an actual state income tax rate, provided that the communication prominently discloses that the illustration is applicable only to investors that reside in the identified state.
(iv) Tax rates used in an illustration that is intended for a target audience must reasonably reflect its tax bracket or brackets as well as the tax character of capital gains and ordinary income.
(v) If the illustration covers the payout period for an investment, the illustration must reflect the impact of taxes during this period.
(vi) The illustration may not assume an unreasonable period of tax deferral.
(vii) The illustration must disclose, as applicable:
a. the degree of risk in the investment's assumed rate of return, including a statement that the assumed rate of return is not guaranteed;
b. the possible effects of investment losses on the relative advantage of the taxable versus the tax-deferred investments;
c. the extent to which tax rates on capital gains and dividends would affect the taxable investment's return;
d. the fact that ordinary income tax rates will apply to withdrawals from a tax-deferred investment;
e. its underlying assumptions;
f. the potential impact resulting from federal or state tax penalties (e.g., for early withdrawals or use on non-qualified expenses); and
g. that an investor should consider his or her current and anticipated investment horizon and income tax bracket when making an investment decision, as the illustration may not reflect these factors.
(5) Disclosure of Fees, Expenses and Standardized Performance
(A) Retail communications and correspondence that present non-money market fund open-end management investment company performance data as permitted by Securities Act Rule 482 and Rule 34b-1 under the Investment Company Act must disclose:
(i) the standardized performance information mandated by Securities Act Rule 482 and Rule 34b-1 under the Investment Company Act; and
(ii) to the extent applicable:
a. the maximum sales charge imposed on purchases or the maximum deferred sales charge, as stated in the investment company's prospectus current as of the date of distribution or submission for publication of a communication; and
b. the total annual fund operating expense ratio, gross of any fee waivers or expense reimbursements, as stated in the fee table of the investment company's prospectus described in paragraph (d)(5)(A)(ii)(a).
(B) All of the information required by paragraph (d)(5)(A) must be set forth prominently, and in any print advertisement, in a prominent text box that contains only the required information and, at the member's option, comparative performance and fee data and disclosures required by Securities Act Rule 482 and Rule 34b-1 under the Investment Company Act.
(A) If any testimonial in a communication concerns a technical aspect of investing, the person making the testimonial must have the knowledge and experience to form a valid opinion.
(B) Retail communications or correspondence providing any testimonial concerning the investment advice or investment performance of a member or its products must prominently disclose the following:
(i) The fact that the testimonial may not be representative of the experience of other customers.
(ii) The fact that the testimonial is no guarantee of future performance or success.
(iii) If more than $100 in value is paid for the testimonial, the fact that it is a paid testimonial.
(A) Retail communications that include a recommendation of securities must have a reasonable basis for the recommendation and must disclose, if applicable, the following:
(i) that at the time the communication was published or distributed, the member was making a market in the security being recommended, or in the underlying security if the recommended security is an option or security future, or that the member or associated persons will sell to or buy from customers on a principal basis;
(ii) that the member or any associated person that is directly and materially involved in the preparation of the content of the communication has a financial interest in any of the securities of the issuer whose securities are recommended, and the nature of the financial interest (including, without limitation, whether it consists of any option, right, warrant, future, long or short position), unless the extent of the financial interest is nominal; and
(iii) that the member was manager or co-manager of a public offering of any securities of the issuer whose securities are recommended within the past 12 months.
(B) A member must provide, or offer to furnish upon request, available investment information supporting the recommendation. When a member recommends a corporate equity security, the member must provide the price at the time the recommendation is made.
(C) A retail communication or correspondence may not refer, directly or indirectly, to past specific recommendations of the member that were or would have been profitable to any person; provided, however, that a retail communication or correspondence may set out or offer to furnish a list of all recommendations as to the same type, kind, grade or classification of securities made by the member within the immediately preceding period of not less than one year, if the communication or list:
(i) states the name of each such security recommended, the date and nature of each such recommendation (e.g., whether to buy, sell or hold), the market price at that time, the price at which the recommendation was to be acted upon, and the market price of each such security as of the most recent practicable date; and
(ii) contains the following cautionary legend, which must appear prominently within the communication or list: “it should not be assumed that recommendations made in the future will be profitable or will equal the performance of the securities in this list.”
(D)(i) This paragraph (d)(7) does not apply to any communication that meets the definition of “research report” for purposes of NASD Rule 2711 and includes all of the applicable disclosures required by that Rule.
(ii) Paragraphs (d)(7)(A) and (d)(7)(C) do not apply to any communication that recommends only registered investment companies or variable insurance products; provided, however, that such communications must have a reasonable basis for the recommendation.
(8) Prospectuses Filed with the SEC
Prospectuses, preliminary prospectuses, fund profiles and similar documents that have been filed with the SEC and free writing prospectuses that are exempt from filing with the SEC are not subject to the standards of this paragraph (d); provided, however, that the standards of this paragraph (d) shall apply to an investment company prospectus published pursuant to Securities Act Rule 482 and a free writing prospectus that is required to be filed with the SEC pursuant to Securities Act Rule 433(d)(1)(ii).
(e) Limitations on Use of FINRA's Name and Any Other Corporate Name Owned by FINRA
Members may indicate FINRA membership in conformity with Article XV, Section 2 of the FINRA By-Laws in one or more of the following ways:
(1) in any communication that complies with the applicable standards of this Rule and neither states nor implies that FINRA, or any other corporate name or facility owned by FINRA, or any other regulatory organization endorses, indemnifies, or guarantees the member's business practices, selling methods, the class or type of securities offered, or any specific security, and provided further that any reference to the Department's review of a communication is limited to either “Reviewed by FINRA” or “FINRA Reviewed”;
(2) in a confirmation statement for an over-the-counter transaction that states: "This transaction has been executed in conformity with the FINRA Uniform Practice Code"; and
(3) on a member's website, provided that the member provides a hyperlink to FINRA's internet home page, www.finra.org, in close proximity to the member's indication of FINRA membership. A member is not required to provide more than one such hyperlink on its website. If the member's website contains more than one indication of FINRA membership, the member may elect to provide any one hyperlink in close proximity to any reference reasonably designed to draw the public's attention to FINRA membership. This provision also shall apply to an internet website relating to the member's investment banking or securities business maintained by or on behalf of any person associated with a member.
(f) Public Appearances
(1) When sponsoring or participating in a seminar, forum, radio or television interview, or when otherwise engaged in public appearances or speaking activities that are unscripted and do not constitute retail communications, institutional communications or correspondence (“public appearance”), persons associated with members must follow the standards of paragraph (d)(1).
(2) If an associated person recommends a security in a public appearance, the associated person must have a reasonable basis for the recommendation. The associated person also must disclose, as applicable:
(A) that the associated person has a financial interest in any of the securities of the issuer whose securities are recommended, and the nature of the financial interest (including, without limitation, whether it consists of any option, right, warrant, future, long or short position), unless the extent of the financial interest is nominal; and
(B) any other actual, material conflict of interest of the associated person or member of which the associated person knows or has reason to know at the time of the public appearance.
(3) Each member shall establish written procedures that are appropriate to its business, size, structure, and customers to supervise its associated persons' public appearances. Such procedures must provide for the education and training of associated persons who make public appearances as to the firm's procedures, documentation of such education and training, and surveillance and follow-up to ensure that such procedures are implemented and adhered to. Evidence that these supervisory procedures have been implemented and carried out must be maintained and made available to FINRA upon request.
(4) Any scripts, slides, handouts or other written (including electronic) materials used in connection with public appearances are considered communications for purposes of this Rule, and members must comply with all applicable provisions of this Rule based on those communications' audience, content and use.
(5) Paragraph (f)(2) does not apply to any public appearance by a research analyst for purposes of NASD Rule 2711 that includes all of the applicable disclosures required by that Rule. Paragraph (f)(2) also does not apply to a recommendation of investment company securities or variable insurance products; provided, however, that the associated person must have a reasonable basis for the recommendation.
(g) Violation of Other Rules
Any violation by a member of any rule of the SEC, the Securities Investor Protection Corporation or the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board applicable to member communications will be deemed a violation of this Rule 2210.
Amended by SR-FINRA-2014-012 eff. July 11, 2014.
Amended by SR-FINRA-2011-035 and SR-FINRA-2013-001 eff. Feb. 4, 2013.
Amended by SR-FINRA-2008-044 eff. Feb. 5, 2009.
Amended by SR-FINRA-2007-020 eff. March 26, 2008.
Amended by SR-FINRA-2007-014 eff. Nov. 17, 2007.
Amended by SR-NASD-2006-073 eff. July 7, 2007.
Amended by SR-NASD-2007-042 eff. June 27, 2007 (Implementation date of IM-2210-4 (3) is Oct 31, 2007).
Amended by SR-NASD-2004-043 eff. April 1, 2007.
Amended by SR-NASD-2006-105 eff. Sept. 7, 2006.
Amended by SR-NASD-2005-087 eff. Aug. 1, 2006.
Amended by SR-NASD-2004-123 eff. Aug. 10, 2004.
Amended by SR-NASD-2003-110 eff. June 28, 2004.
Amended by SR-NASD-2000-12 and SR-NASD-2003-94 eff. Nov. 3, 2003.
Amended by SR-NASD-2002-40 eff. Oct. 15, 2002.
Amended by SR-NASD-98-32 eff. April 1, 2000.
Amended by SR-NASD-98-57 eff. March 26, 1999.
Amended by SR-NASD-98-86 eff. Nov. 19, 1998.
Amended by SR-NASD-98-29 eff. Nov. 16, 1998.
Amended by SR-NASD-98-28 eff. July 15, 1998.
Amended by SR-NASD-97-28 eff. Aug. 7, 1997.
Amended by SR-NASD-97-33 eff. May 9, 1997.
Amended by SR-NASD-95-39 eff. Aug. 20, 1996.
Amended by SR-NASD-95-12 eff. Aug. 9, 1995.
Amended by SR-NASD-93-66 eff. Mar. 17, 1994.
Amended by SR-NASD-92-53 eff. July 1, 1993.
Amended eff. Aug. 2, 1983; June 5, 1987; July 1, 1988; Nov. 28, 1988; June 26, 1990; Mar. 27, 1991; Sept. 13, 1991; Nov. 16, 1992.
Selected Notices: 98-83, 99-16, 00-15, 00-22, 03-38, 04-36, 04-64, 06-48, 07-02, 07-47, 09-10, 12-29, 14-30.